The thyroid gland is a crucial endocrine organ and its primary endocrine function is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Thyrotropin-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland mediates the secretion of thyroid hormone. Benign thyroid conditions include cyst, nodule, which can be inactive or hyperactive.
Disturbances of the normal glandular function of the thyroid gland may result in hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism.
Patients with thyroid disorders may also present with diffuse enlargement (goitre), focal nodular enlargement (thyroid nodule), or compressive symptoms (dysphagia, respiratory distress).
A careful clinical history and meticulous physical examination usually suggest a reasonable clinical diagnosis or a short list of differential diagnoses.
Laboratory investigations including thyroid function tests allow accurate estimation of the thyroid hormonal status. Patients with high TSH levels are at an increased risk of malignancy . Imaging also plays an integral role in the assessment of thyroid disorders and helps guide patient management.